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28 juin 2009 7 28 /06 /juin /2009 13:28

SEXUAL BEHAVIORS AND PRACTICES IN MOROCCO (II)

HETEROSEXUALITY

 

Prof. Dr. Abdessamad Dialmy

University Mohamed V Rabat

 

 

II- Heterosexual  Behaviors

 

The induced sexual need by the non-structured policies of the state is so intense that it leads youngsters and adults to zoophily, continual harassment and wild, multiple relationships. 

 

II-1 Zoophily 

 

Zoophily is very recognized especially by rural boys, those that have spend their childhood in the countryside. Donkeys, sheep and poultry were the object of their first sexual experiences[1]. Animals are chosen for their warmth, lubricity or tightness[2].

 

II-2 Harassment  

 

Coeducation in the urban public space is not profoundly accepted nor assimilated. It is lived through the pattern of sexual harassment (dragnet). Within this space, the freedom of the male does not end where begins that of the female. Public space is a space of systematic dragnet, on foot, by car, in the bus, wherever, whenever [3].  

“Dragnet" as the main mode of dating makes of the youngster’s sexuality an occasional, unsteady and fast sexuality. “Dragnet" leads to shorten the period between the first meeting and the sexual act[4].  

 

II-3 Multi-partner relationships 

 

Rare are youngsters that recognize one partner only. For the majority, the multi-partner relationships seem to be the norm. However, one can distinguish between a successive multi-partner relationship that is change of the partner and a simultaneous multi-partner relation that consists in having several partners at the same time[5]. This second type of relationship is more frequently invoked. It is presented as having a "pure" fiancée and several dirty "occasional" sexual partners. This form of multi-partner relations saves morality, on the one hand, and satisfies security compulsion on the other hand, reassuring an ego that is culturally submissive to the virility imperative, which is perceived as multi-partner relationships. To be virile or die, that is the dilemma. For Moslems, the connection between virility and multi-partner relationships takes root in the prophetic model. 

 

III- Heterosexual Practices 

 

The practices described below mainly concern the sexual activity of teenagers and youngsters. 

 

III-1 Masturbation 

 

Among boys, masturbation begins long before puberty, starting from the age of eight[6]. It takes place without ejaculation. Collective masturbation is also a game, "the challenge to determine who can make it longer than others"[7]. 

Girls speak with difficulty of their masturbation. They speak more about rubbing themselves against objects such as the cushion, the pillow or the table[8].

The factors that arouse the desire for masturbation are varied enough. The two main sources are seeing sex movies and the narrowness of the parental lodging. Indeed, many boys felt a strong sexual arousal when they either saw or heard their parents making love[9]. This factor is invoked again and again. 

 

III-2 The brushstroke  

 

It is a common expression by Moroccan youngsters to say that the penis operates like a brush between the big lips of the vagina or between the girl's thighs, penetration often being refused and feared. In this case, girls and boys are together convinced of the value of virginity as non-defloration[10].  

Girls find in the brushstroke a means that allows them to pass with success the test of “the good premarital sexual behavior,” sexual pleasure without defloration. By refusing the temptation of penetration, girls feel a kind of pride[11], and forget the shame and guilt that are socially associated with all kinds of premarital sexual activity.  

 

III-3 Heterosexual sodomy 

 

Among boys, heterosexual sodomy is very appreciated by boys. But numerous are girls who refuse sodomy. The main reason of the refusal is originated in the social and religious vision of “the sexually correct" according to which sodomy is condemned. But girls often have to let themselves sodomized[12]. Sodomy is here a surrogate to vaginal penetration.  It is a substitute that allows the young boy to ejaculate inside, in an inside. Some girls recognize to have experienced it and express remorse and disgust in general[13]. 

In the conjugal setting, some wives see sodomy as a practice unworthy of a married woman. In few cases married women admit practicing and enjoying sodomy[14].  

 

III-4 Oral sexuality 

 

The oral intercourse constitutes another palliative for defloration. The girl's refusal to let herself be penetrated gives the boys the opportunity to put pressure on their female partners to get a fellatio[15]. Therefore, in general, the fellatio is a practice of substitution associated to premarital sexuality or in some cases to an extra-conjugal activity[16]. But within the conjugal framework itself, the normalization of oral sexuality is admitted among a category of youngsters who have a high level of education. However, the fellatio seems to be more frequent than cunnilingus. This bigger frequency of fellatio expresses the sexual selfishness of the dominant male[17].  

 

IV- Female Sexual Satisfaction  

 

As a result of rapid increase in female literacy and the spread of TV since the 1970s, young women have more access to the themes of romantic love and sexual consumption[18]. In the same way, the expansion of video shops in the 1980s encouraged the consumption of pornographic movies that play a pedagogic role in the erotic domain[19]. The discovery of sexual pleasure by Moroccan women is there, incontestable. It ensues a growing importance of sexual understanding in the maintenance of the couple. 

 

IV-1 Premarital 

 

By the late 1970s the first survey on sexuality in Morocco by Dialmy[20] revealed that only 8,7% adopt the Islamic prohibition of premarital intercourse (2,2% among boys and 18,3% among girls). Moreover, this premarital intercourse does not presuppose a marriage project and is practiced for itself, for pleasure (67,7% among men and 45% among women). According to this study, virginity must be preserved until marriage for only 9% of girls and could be consumed just after engagements for 40%. The premarital sexuality is satisfying for 90% among men and 75% of women.

In the 1980s, according to Naamne-Guessouss, "the majority of young girls (65,3%) have had one intercourse at least"[21].

During the 1990s, young women show more sexual emancipation as it appeared through Dialmy's studies, "Jeunesse, Sida et Islam au Maroc" and "Sexualité et politique au Maroc"[22]. For the "new" young woman, a lover or a potential husband is appreciated for both his sexual and economic potency. Hence sex relationships become subdued to the groping, to the principle of the test and the mistake. They are becoming unsteady and utilitarian. Some unmarried young women consult for frigidity[23]. In general, the young woman doesn't want to hear about premarital sexual abstinence.

 

IV-2 Conjugal

 

According to S. Naamane-Guesouss, women divide in three categories with respect to this issue: the first category is represented by educated young women aged less than 35 years for whom sex is shared pleasure; a second category of educated women aged 35 years for whom sex is the opportunity to give pleasure to the husband in exchange of his affection, a third category of illiterate women aged over 35 years for whom sex is a chore and a suffering [24].

In my "Sexualité et Politique au Maroc"[25], I argued that the above female positions two major opinions are confronted here. The first believes that the conjugal couple is based dialogue and sexual understanding, the second thinks sexual modernization of the conjugal couple concerns a statistical minority mostly related to urban areas[26]. 

For the first opinion, wives manage to live sexuality as pleasure, not as a chore. In intellectual middle classes the wife has begun to discuss sexual matters with her husband in terms of right thanks to her economic contribution to the household. In the high social spheres, the wife is open to all sexual practices. In sum, there is undoubtedly a discovery of sexual pleasure by the married woman. More and more, and sometimes without the knowledge of the husband, some married women consult female gynecologists for questions of pleasure. According to a psychiatrist interviewed in Fez, the majority of men can only follow and find more and more normal that the conjugal partner participates actively in coitus. Female pleasure is more and more normalized. Husbands bring pornographic cassettes to their wives for inspiration and imitation. Some married men consult a psychiatrist because they need to know whether oral or sodomite intercourse are normal practices. 

For the second opinion, this normalization of the wife's sexual involvement would only touch the middle and high classes. In the other layers of society, there is a lot of dissatisfaction, a lot of hesitation and a lot of silence within the couple. But sexual misunderstanding with the husband is not the only cause of female adultery. In some cases, the wife cheats on her husband for money without being really poor. She does it in order to be able to satisfy her intensive need to consume more and better[27].  

 

Conclusion

 

In conclusion, let’s recall that sexual behaviors and practices described above were also related in two Moroccan newspapers, Al Ahath al Maghribiya (in Arabic) and L'Opinion (in french). "From heart to heart" and "Beyond taboos" are respectively the two files through which personal sexual stories are exposed twice a week since more than 2 years. In doing so, these newspapers created a public discussion about sexuality between story's writer, reader and sexologist[28] or psychologist and are contributing to undermine the taboo of sexuality in Morocco.

 



[1] A. Dialmy : Jeunesse, Sida et Islam au Maroc, op. cit. pp. 74-75.

[2] A. Serhane : L'amour circoncis, Casablanca, Eddif, 1996, p. 156.

[3] A. Dialmy : Logement, sexualité et Islam, op. cit, pp. 65-66.

[4] A. Dialmy : Jeunesse, Sida et Islam, op. cit, pp. 100-104.

[5] Ibid. p. 104-110.

[6] Ibid. p. 72.

[7] Ibid. p. 72.

[8] Ibid. p. 73.

[9] Ibid. p. 73.

[10] Ibid. p. 85.

[11] Ibid. p. 86.

[12] Ibid. p. 88.

[13] Ibid. p. 89.

[14] Ibid. p. 89.

[15] Ibid. p. 87.

[16] A. Khatibi: Blessure du nom propre, Paris, Denoël, 1974, p. 50.

[17] A. Dialmy: Jeunesse, Sida et Islam au Maroc, op. cit. p. 88.

[18] E. Evers Rosander: Women in Borderland: Managing Muslim identity Where Morocco meets Spain, Stockholm Social Studies in Social Anthropology, Stockholm, 1991.

[19] A. Dialmy: Jeunesse, Sida et Islam au Maroc, op. cit. p. 143.

[20] A. Dialmy: La femme et la sexualité au Maroc, op. cit., pp. 133-134.

[21] S. Naamane Guessous : Au delà de toute pudeur, op. cit. p. 44.

[22] A. Dialmy: Sexualité et Politique au Maroc, op. cit, p. 18.

[23] Ibid. p. 19.

[24] S. Naamane Guessous: Au delà de toute pudeur, op. cit. pp. 205-208.

[25] A. Dialmy: Sexualité et Politique au Maroc, op. cit, pp. 20-23.

[26] Nadia Arrif: “Condition sexuelle de la femme rurale: cas de l'Unnayn”, Portraits de femmes, Casablanca, Le Fennec, 1987.

[27] A. Dialmy: Sexualité et Politique au Maroc, op. cit, pp. 20-23.

[28] The sexologist A. Harakat was the consultant of L'Opinion newspaper regarding "Au-delà des tabous" file. This sexologist recently gathered some letters and his responses that occur between May 1999 and June 2000 in a book which took the title of the file, "Au-delà des tabous. Réflexions sur la sexualité au Maroc", Casablanca, Editions Axions Communication, without date.

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